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  The Daodejing, Daoism, and the Restoration of Humanity in the Asian Healing Arts: With Translation and Commentary on the Text
The Daodejing and the Restoration of Humanity
The Daodejing, Daoism, and the Restoration of Humanity in the Asian Healing Arts
 
Our Price: $100.00

Product Code: B-300

Description
 
The Daodejing, Daoism, and the Restoration of Humanity in the Asian Healing Arts

The Dodjīng may be THE most important book ever written. As the oldest book of Chinese Daoism, it comes from a time before philosophy and religion were separated; and it contains in seminal form all of the important concepts for the internal arts of ancient China including painting, calligraphy, poetry, architecture, Fēngshuǐ, cooking, love making, politics, warfare, and especially the healing arts of acupuncture, meditation, Qgōng and Tijqun. This book presents Dennis Willmonts original translation complete with Pinyin, Chinese characters, and chapter commentaries as well as an in-depth study of the cultural background that helps to explain the meaning of the text on the profound level it deserves.

Reviews

In a time when we are forgetting the value and mystery of Life, when the very root of Life is at stake, it is my deepest honor and pleasure to enter this meticulous and careful conversation with Antiquity. This is a book to restore the root and purpose of any practitioner of Chinese medicine. Dennis opens the conversation between Lǎozis instructions, the acupuncture points, and the practices of inner cultivation and brings deep inquiry into the practice of acupuncture. A conversation through time, this work comes alive, forward, backward, inward outward, from Heaven to Earth and back again. Within the detail and devotion of his scholarship he guards the secrets of life.
Laura Clarke Stelmok, LicAc.(UK), M.Ac, Dipl.Ac.; Program Director of The Unseen Hand: Medicine from Antiquity, A Gathering of Physicians, Artists and Scribes

Ive known Dennis Willmont for thirty years. It would appear that he has spent much of that time studying, teaching, writing and compiling Daoist teaching and healing arts, as he has amassed a veritable encyclopedia of knowledge in his voluminous work on the Dodjīng. I highly recommend this book to anyone who wants a comprehensive guide and historical analysis of Daoism and Daoist medicine. Practical in orientation, both practitioners and laypersons will gain value from this book.
Zev Rosenberg, L. Ac.; Professor, Alembic Institute; Senior researcher, Xinglin Institute; Chair Emeritus/Pacific College of Oriental Medicine

This work is an exploration of a here to date inadequately discussed component of East Asian Medicine. It goes into meticulous detail in understanding the Dodjīng, its author, and the texts position within the broader East Asian philosophical tradition. Dennis grounds the mystical culture surrounding the Dodjīng within the worldview of the ancients and connects this worldview with the traditional healing arts. Based on this solid foundation, Dennis then turns to the text of the Dodjīng itself. He presents each of the 81 verses and expounds on them so that a modern reader can come to a fuller understanding within a deep context of both culture and medicine. Experienced practitioners and well as academicians will find this a fascinating and useful text. It should be seen as an embodiment of the living tradition of Daoist medicine brought forth by someone who has devoted his life to illuminating the remnants of the classical approach.
Steve Jackowicz,
M.AC., L.Ac., Ph.D.; Clinical Assistant Professor at the University of Bridgeport Acupuncture Institute

"As it was presented to me in acupuncture school, the Daodejing is a prescription for following the middle path. As I learned from Dennis Willmonts latest book, The Dodjīng, Daoism, and the Restoration of Humanity in the Asian Healing Arts, it is so much more than that. Although my instructors recognized it as an important Chinese book, no one ever made a connection between the practice of acupuncture and the information contained within the Dodjīng. Not only was it not part of our education, we were not even encouraged to read it; and there was never any suggestion that it might affect how we practice. Dennis Willmonts text corrects that omission, and in the process he restores dimensionality to our medicine.

Acupuncture, as it is taught in our schools, essentially is technique. Yes, it is complex and sophisticated; but we come away from our education with the sense that acupuncture is a neatly circumscribed discipline. This is why non-acupuncturists see it as a method that can be applied by rote or recipe. In part, I believe it is our fault that they see our profession that way, though certainly it is not intentional. This is how it was taught to us, and this is how we pass it down to others.

We cannot blame the schools for this. Our instructors also were not taught the wholeness of our medicine, even those who studied in China. As Willmont explains, the change in the written language made by the Chinese Communists during the Cultural Revolution destroyed the threads of linguistic meaning that came down to the average person in China, unchanged through thousands of years. Now the only people who can decipher the true meanings of the classic texts are people who learned the Chinese language as it was written prior to the Cultural Revolution, or those who emigrated to Taiwan. Fortunately for us, Dennis Willmont is one of these people. As an acupuncturist in practice for over 40 years, and as a scholar who has studied the Dodjīng in all its aspects for over 50 years, he is able to present to us the richness of the Daodejing and make it relevant to our daily work.

When the written Chinese language lost its integrity, we also lost the original meanings of the acupuncture point names. Willmont explains these point names for us; they are so much more than poetry and metaphor. This information alone makes Willmonts book an important text; but he does not stop there. He also shows us how the richness of acupuncture practice has been lost, and he begins the process of returning it to its power. From a complete medicine practiced in many styles to treat all ailments, it was reduced over the centuries to a fraction of what it was, simplified, and demoted to a less powerful medicine than herbs. In studying the Dodjīng, Willmont is recovering what we have lost and restoring acupuncture to the powerful medicine it once was. He returns to us the pieces of our medicine that have been lopped off, such as Daoist meditation and inner alchemy. His discussion of the history, politics, and meaning of the Dodjīng illuminates the relationship of acupuncture to the bāgu, the Yjīng, Daoism, the Five Elements, the levels of disease, and the restoration of health to society as well as to the individual.

Though we talk about how acupuncture developed within a philosophical, cultural, and political context, we do not really understand that context or what it means for the way we practice. Willmont shows us, in great and exquisite detail, where our medicine belongs in the scheme of things. Acupuncture is one element in a rich tapestry of medical practice that is much more expansive than we realize, embracing meditation, Qgōng, inner alchemy, and a conceptual framework for understanding wellness and how to foster it. The Dodjīng is the warp of this tapestry, the foundation upon which our medicine was built. The Dodjīng shows us how all the elements of our medicine are woven together, both in the way we practice it and in the way we live our lives. The practitioner who understands the Dodjīng practices a very different kind of medicine from the practitioner who simply puts acupuncture needles into points. The Dodjīng explains not just which points to use, when, and how; it also teaches the practitioner the proper way to approach healing.

A small example of how Willmonts book has altered my practice forever is in the application of the concept of spontaneity. Many acupuncturists have accidentally invoked spontaneity in their treatments. We have stumbled upon it without knowing what we are doing and without being able to replicate the experience. We recognize it as important, but not knowing what we did (or, more accurately, did not do), we are unable to do (i.e., not do) it again. I am not making a joke or playing with words. This is a serious concept that is taught in the Dodjīng in chapter after chapter. Willmont helps us to understand its importance and gives us the tools to become spontaneous in our treatments. Primary among these tools is a proper application of Qgōng and meditation to the practice of acupuncture. We are taught in school that Qgōng is important for our work as acupuncturists, but we are never taught how they are connected. We proceed through the decades of our careers practicing acupuncture and practicing Qgōng and never putting them together. We come out of school crippled and remain crippled throughout our careers. Again, it is not the fault of our instructors, as they are crippled in this way, too.

My practice is largely orthopedic, and I do a lot of work with my hands in addition to needles. Since I am just beginning to think about how to apply the concept of spontaneity in my treatments, my ability to be spontaneous is unreliable. Yet just the awareness of the need to be spontaneous and the willingness to allow the Q to go where it will has resulted in more profound treatment sessions with better outcomes achieved more easily. Patients notice the difference and remark on it, and they respond differently to my touch. They are much more likely to enter a state of altered consciousness, quickly; and we are more attuned and responsive to each other. Spontaneity, even in the hands of a novice, raises the level of practice in acupuncture above the mechanical variations otherwise practiced. This is just one example of how Willmont is restoring our medicine to its fullness.

The Dodjīng, Daoism, and the Restoration of Humanity in the Asian Healing Arts is, in my opinion, the most important book on the Daodejing that has ever been written. It should be a required text in every acupuncture school across the globe. As other professions try to co-opt acupuncture and incorporate it as a technique into their own scopes of practice, it is essential that we understand, appreciate, and demonstrate to the world the true depth and power of our medicine. If it is powerful as a technique, just imagine the good that can be done when its modern practitioners are able to use it the way it was practiced millennia ago. I can only wonder what kind of acupuncturist I might have become had I learned the information in this volume at the beginning of my career rather than at the end."

Mary J. Rogel Ph.D., L.Ac, Editor of the Oriental Medicine Journal

Features

Table of Contents

Part I: Cultural Background of the Dodjīng 20

Basic Meaning of the Text 20

Thematic Context 20

Integration of the Ancient Schools 21

Thematic Context Outline 22

Thematic Context Terms 27

Early Culture 30

Dynastic Periods 30

Xi Dynasty (2205 BCE-1818 BCE) 30

Shāng Dynasty (1766-1122 BCE) 30

The Zhōu Dynasty (1122-256 BCE) 31

The Warring States Period (403-222 BCE) 33

Qn Dynasty (221-207 BCE) 35

Hn Dynasty (206 BCE220 CE) 36

Period of Disunity (220-618 CE) 39

Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 to 589 CE) 40

Su Dynasty (589-618 CE) 40

Tng Dynasty (618-905 CE) 41

Sng Dynasty (960-1279 CE) 42

Yun Dynasty (1271-1368 CE) 43

Mng Dynasty (13681644 CE) 45

Thematic Overview of Chinese Cultural History 46

Important Early Daoist Texts 52

Guǎnzi (400-200 BCE) 52

Zhuāngzǐ (399-295 BCE) 52

Huinnzǐ (139 BCE) 52

Lizĭ (300 CE) 53

Dozng (1016-1607 CE) 53

Important Early Confucians 55

Confucianism in General 55

Confucius (551-479 BCE) 55

Mzǐ (479-381 BCE) 57

Mencius (371-289 BCE) 58

Xnzǐ (340-245 BCE) 58

Daoist Background of the Dodjīng 60

Philosophical and Religious Daoism 60

Political Alliance 61

Timelines 61

Lineages 62

General 62

Celestial Masters (Tiān Shī Do 天師道―142 CE) 64

Highest Purity (Shngqīng 上清―304 CE) 65

Numinous Treasure (Lngbǎo 靈寶―400 CE) 69

Complete Perfection (Qunzhēn 全眞―1159 CE, Sng Dynasty) 69

Summary 73

Historical Basis of the Author 74

Lǎozi in History 75

Source Text 75

Pre-Hn Dynasty Texts 77

Hn Dynasty Texts 78

Post-Hn Dynasty Texts 78

Summary 74 78

Lǎozi in Myth 78 78

Overview 78 78

Magical Practitioners 79 79

Political Elite 84 84

Supernatural Status 84 84

Relationship with Buddhism 84 84

The Yǐn Xǐ Geneology of Early Daoism 86 86

Place and Date of Birth 87 87

The Deification of Lǎozi 89 89

The Disappearance of Lǎozi 98 98

A Normal Death 98 98

Journey to the West 99 99

Important Places 102 102

Dragon Horn Mountain 102 102

Hngǔ Pass 102 102

Lugun 102 102

Historical Basis of the Text 103 103

About the Text 105 105

Original Form 105 105

Organization: Section and Chapter Divisions 106 106

Style 106 106

Transmissions 106 106

Mǎwngduī 107 107

Guōdin 107 107

Differences Between the Mǎwngduī and Guōdin Transmissions 107 107

Western Translations 107 107

Dating of the Text 108 108

Variations on Dodjīng Themes 109 109

Historical Use of the Text 110 110

Importance of the Text for the General Public and Daoism 110 110

Use by Daoist Sects 111 111

Major Historical Commentaries 112 112

General 112 112

Hshng Gōng 113 113

Wngb 115 115

The Dodjīng as Core Daoist Healing Text 115 115

Political Rule and Daoism in Ancient China 121 121

Influence of the King 121 121

Source of Authority 121 121

Ruler of the Heart 122 122

When Lǎozi Becomes a God 123 123

Body/Mind/Spirit Methods and Applications 127 127

Natural Healing and Worldview 127 127

Dual Cultivation and the Unique Principle of Yin and Yang 131 131

Body: Food and Herbs 139 139

Traditional Approach 139 139

Modern Applications: Georges Ohsawa and the Macrobiotic Way of Life 141 141

Mind: Virtue/Empowerment, Worldview, and Daoist Psychology 144 144

Etymology and Definition of D 144 144

Confucian Conceptions of Virtue as Morality 145 145

Daoist Conceptions of Virtue 147 147

The Five Constant Virtues 149 149

Zh/Wisdom and Gratitude 150 150

Rn/Humanity and Infinite Freedom 152 152

/Appropriateness and Eternal Happiness 153 153

Xn/Accountability and Faith 154 154

Y/Righteousness, Justice, and the Seven Levels of Judgment 155 155

Virtue and the Mandate of Heaven 158 158

Spirit: Meditation, Qgōng, and Alchemy 160 160

Meditation 160 160

Methods 162 162

Breath 163 163

Stretching and Relaxing 164 164

Mantra and Chanting 164 164

Visualization 165 165

Talismans 166 166

Asceticism 168 168

Healing 168 168

Qgōng 170 170

Definition 170 170

Dǎoyǐn 170 170

Other Forms 171 171

Examples 172 1721

History 173 173

Timeline of Events 175 175

Fǎln Gōng 177 177

Inner Alchemy 180 180

Definition 180 180

Goals 182 182

History 182 1821

Texts and Schools 183 183

First Texts 183 183

Celestial Masters (142 CE in the Hn Dynasty) 185 185

Highest Purity (304 CE) 186 186

Three Caverns 186 186

Complete Perfection (1159 CE in the Sng Dynasty) 186 186

Modern Times 187 187

Methods 187 187

Outer Alchemy 187 187

Inner Alchemy 190 190

Stages of Inner Alchemy 192 192

Preparation: Creating the Cauldron and the Inner Smile 192 192

The Microcosmic Orbit 193 193

Five Phase Fusion 194 194

Meditational Alchemy 198 198

Macrocosmic Orbit 205 205

Greater Macrocosmic Orbit 207 207

Transformation of the Three Treasures 209 209

Lǎozi as a Profound Symbol of Chinese Culture 215 215

An Historical Perspective of Lǎozi 215 215

The Yellow Emperor (Hungd 黃帝) 215 215

Fxī 伏羲 215 215

Record Keepers and Astrologers 215 215

Immortality Practices 216 216

The Buddha 217 217

The Hngǔ Pass 217 217

The Meaning of Lǎozi Riding the Ox through the Hngǔ Pass 218 218

The Conversion of the Barbarians 218 218

The Ox in the Cycles of the Five Phases 218 218

The Ox in the Chinese Zodiac 219 219

The Weaving Maiden and Cowherd Boy 219 219

The Birthing of the Immortal Fetus in Inner Alchemy 220 220

The Meaning of These Legends in Terms of Lǎozi as the Old Child 220 220

Acupuncture 225 225

Principles 225 225

The Manifestation Sequence and the Seventy-One Meridians of Acupuncture 225 225

The Three Levels of Healing in Acupuncture 227 227

The Symptomatic and Preventive Levels 227 227

The Spiritual Level 228 228

Reciprocal Imagery Between the Points and Themes of the Text 229 229

Identification between Lǎozi and the Shn/Spirit of the Heart 230 230

Oneness and the Navel Center 232 232

Receiving Nourishment from the One 235 235

Polarization Legends Common to the Meridian System and the Dodjīng 237 237

Daoist Divinities and the Acupuncture Points 241 241

Eight Acupuncture Do Formulas 242 242

General Principles 242 242

Yang Treatments 243 243

(1) Do Treatment: Builds the Yang of the Main Supporting Organs (12 Points) 243 243

(2) The Golden Elixir Treatment (12 Points) 244 244

Yin Treatments 248 248

(3) Seven Emotions Treatment: Builds Yin of the Main Organs (13 Points) 248 248

(4) The Great One Treatment (14 Points) 249 249

Balanced Treatments 253 253

(5) The Virtue/Empowerment Treatment (14 Points) 253 253

(6) The Big Bell Treatment: Fulfilling Inner Potential (16 Points) 255 255

(7) The Heavenly Ancestor Treatment: God as Lǎozi is Within (10 Points) 262 262

(8) Deities as Ancestors Treatment (9 Points) 264 264

The Classical Chinese Language as Worldview 267 267

General 267 267

History 268 268

The Spoken Language 269 269

Symbolism in Language 270 270

Challenges in Translating 272 272

Chapter Titles 277 277

Part II: The Text and Commentaries 280 280

Book One: The Book of Do 280 280

Chapter 1 (1:1)―The Do that Has No Name 280 280

Translation 280

Commentary 280

Chapter 2 (1:2)―The Hidden Perfection of Yin and Yang 286 286

Translation 286

Commentary 287

Chapter 3 (1:3)―Acting with Non-Action 288 288

Translation 288

Commentary 288288

Chapter 4 (1:4)―The Pattern/Template of the Lord 292 292

Translation 292

Commentary 292

Chapter 5 (1:5)―Straw Dogs 294 294

Translation 294

Commentary 294

Chapter 6 (1:6)―The Spirit of the Valley 298 298

Translation 298

Commentary 298

Chapter 7 (1:7)―Leaving Yourself Behind 302 302

Commentary 302

Translation 302

Chapter 8 (1:8)―The Highest Good is like Water 304 304

Translation 304

Commentary 305

Chapter 9 (1:9)―Filling a Hall with Gold and Jade 308 308

Translation 308

Commentary 309

Chapter 10 (2:1)―Mysterious Virtue 310 310

Translation 310

Commentary 311

Chapter 11 (2:2)―The Thirty Spokes of a Single Wheel 314 314

Translation 314

Commentary 314

Chapter 12 (2:3)―The Belly of the Sage 316 316

Translation 316

Commentary 316

Chapter 13 (2:4)―Valuing Great Suffering 318 318

Translation 318

Commentary 319

Chapter 14 (2:5)―Knowing the Ancient Beginning 322 322

Translation 322

Commentary 323

Chapter 15 (2:6)―The Simplicity of a Woodcutter 328 328

Translation 328

Commentary 329

Chapter 16 (2:7)―Returning to Destiny 332 332

Translation 332

Commentary 332

Chapter 17 (2:8)―Accountability 334 334

Translation 334

Commentary 334

Chapter 18 (2:9)―Confusion and Disorder in the Kingdom 336 336

Translation 336

Commentary 336

Chapter 19 (3:1)―Limiting Desire 338 338

Translation 338

Commentary 339

Chapter 20 (3:2)―The Infant Child Who has not Laughed 340 340

Translation 340

Commentary 341

Chapter 21 (3:3)―The Accountability of the Vague and Elusive 342 342

Translation 342

Commentary 343

Chapter 22 (3:4)―Becoming the Model for Everyone 346 346

Translation 346

Commentary 347

Chapter 23 (3:5)―The Whirlwind and the Thunderstorm 350 350

Translation 350

Commentary 350

Chapter 24 (3:6)―Excess Nourishment and Useless Activities 352 352

Translation 352

Commentary 352

Chapter 25 (3:7)―The Mother of the World 354 354

Translation 354

Commentary 355

Chapter 26 (3:8)―Showing Your Lightness to the World 356 356

Translation 356

Commentary 356

Chapter 27 (3:9)―Depending on the Good 358 358

Translation 358

Commentary 359

Chapter 28 (4:1)―The Greatest Tailor Never Cuts 362 362

Translation 362

Commentary 362

Chapter 29 (4:2)―The Spirit Vessel of the World 364 364

Translation 364

Commentary 364

Chapter 30 (4:3)―Using Strength through Weapons 366 366

Translation 366

Commentary 367

Chapter 31 (4:4)―Abiding with the Funeral Rites 368 368

Translation 368

Commentary 369

Chapter 32 (4:5)―The Do that has No Name 370 370

Translation 370

Commentary 370

Chapter 33 (4:6)―He Who Dies But Doesnt Perish 372 372

Translation 372

Commentary 372

Chapter 34 (4:7)―Without Acting as their Ruler 374 374

Translation 374

Commentary 375

Chapter 35 (4:8)―The Pattern/Template of the World 376 376

Translation 376

Commentary 377

Chapter 36 (4:9)―The Fish Cannot Escape from the Depths 378 378

Translation 378

Commentary 379

Chapter 37 (5:1)―Quietude 382 382

Translation 382

Commentary 382

Book Two: The Book of D 384 384

Chapter 38 (5:2)―High and Low Virtue 384 384

Translation 384

Commentary 385

Chapter 39 (5:3)―Attaining Oneness 388 388

Translation 388

Commentary 389

Chapter 40 (5:4)―The Movement of Do is in Returning 392 392

Translation 392

Commentary 392

Chapter 41 (5:5)―When the Scholar/Warrior Hears of the Do 394 394

Translation 394

Commentary 395

Chapter 42 (5:6)―The Manifestation Sequence 398 398

Translation 398

Commentary 398

Chapter 43 (5:7)―The Benefits of Non-Action 400 400

Translation 400

Commentary 400

Chapter 44 (5:8)―Valuing the Real Self 402 402

Translation 4042

Commentary 403

Chapter 45 (5:9)―Stillness Rectifies the World 404 404

Translation 404

Commentary 404

Chapter 46 (6:1)―War Horses Breeding on the Frontier 406 406

Translation 406

Commentary 407

Chapter 47 (6:2)―Knowing the World without Leaving the Door 408 408

Translation 408

Commentary 409

Chapter 48 (6:3)―Through Non-Action, Nothing is Left Undone 410 410

Translation 410

Commentary 411

Chapter 49 (6:4)―Being Good to Those Who are Not Good 412 412

Translation 412

Commentary 413

Chapter 50 (6:5)―The Tiger Finds No Place to Claw 414 414

Translation 414

Commentary 414

Chapter 51 (6:6)―Giving Life to the Ten Thousand Things 418 418

Translation 418

Commentary 418

Chapter 52 (6:7)―The Mother of the World 420 420

Translation 420

Commentary 420

Chapter 53 (6:8)―Braggers and Thieves 422 422

Translation 422

Commentary 423

Chapter 54 (6:9)―Cultivating Virtue 424 424

Translation 424

Commentary 425

Chapter 55 (7:1)―Poisonous Insects and Snakes 426 426

Translation 426

Commentary 427

Chapter 56 (7:2)―The Mysterious Union 430 430

Translation 430

Commentary 431

Chapter 57 (7:3)―Self-Rectification 436 436

Translation 436

Commentary 437

Chapter 58 (7:4)―Making Things Square Without Cutting 440 440

Translation 440

Commentary 441

Chapter 59 (7:5)―Preventive Medicine 442 442

Translation 442

Commentary 442

Chapter 60 (7:6)―Cooking a Small Fish 444 444

Translation 444

Commentary 445

Chapter 61 (7:7)―Seeking the Lowest Level 446 446

Translation 446

Commentary 447

Chapter 62 (7:8)―Making Obeisance with the Jade Disc 448 448

Translation 448

Commentary 448

Chapter 63 (7:9)―Taking Care of Things While They are Small 450 450

Translation 450

Commentary 450

Chapter 64 (8:1)―The Journey of a Thousand Miles 452 452

Translation 452

Commentary 454

Chapter 65 (8:2)―Returning to the Great Beginning 456 456

Translation 456

Commentary 456

Chapter 66 (8:3)―Putting Yourself Last 458 458

Translation 458

Commentary 458

Chapter 67 (8:4)―The Three Treasures 460 460

Translation 460

Commentary 460

Chapter 68 (8:5)―Using the Force of Others 464 464

Translation 464

Commentary 464

Chapter 69 (8:6)―Baring Arms without Rolling up the Sleeves 466 466

Translation 466

Commentary 467

Chapter 70 (8:7)―Keeping Jade in the Bosom 468 468

Translation 468

Commentary 468

Chapter 71 (8:8)―Being Sick of Being Sick 470 470

Translation 470

Commentary 470

Chapter 72 (8:9)―When a Greater Majesty Will Arrive 472 472

Translation 472

Commentary 473

Chapter 73 (9:1)―The Spreading of Heavens Net 474 474

Translation 474

Commentary 475

Chapter 74 (9:2)―The Official Executioner 476 476

Translation 476

Commentary 477

Chapter 75 (9:3)―Acting with no Regard for Life 478 478

Translation 478

Commentary 478

Chapter 76 (9:4)―Disciples of the Living and the Dead 480 480

Translation 480

Commentary 481

Chapter 77 (9:5)―Handling a Stretched Bow 482 482

Translation 482

Commentary 483

Chapter 78 (9:6)―Ruler over the Gods 484 484

Translation 484

Commentary 484

Chapter 79 (9:7)―Holding the Left Tally 486 486

Translation 486

Commentary 4487

Chapter 80 (9:8)―O for a Small Kingdom 488 488

Translation 488

Commentary 488

Chapter 81 (9:9)―Being without Contention or Suffering 490 490

Translation 490

Commentary 491

Appendix 492 493

Basic Pronunciation 492 492

Thematic Context According to Terms 493 493

Important Names 498 498

People 498 498

Places 500 500

Texts 501 501

Bibliography 504 504

Index 518 518

Endnotes 526 526


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